Friday 27 November 2015

Inflammatory Response to GAS (Group A Strep) and Dysmaturational Syndrome (Tourette’s Syndrome with Autism “Recovery” by 6 Years Old)

Michele Zappella was Head of the Department of Child Neuropsychiatry
 at Siena Hospital from 1973 to 2006

Today’s post is the one I mentioned some time ago about odd behavioral reactions to Group A Streptococcus.  It does veer off to Italy and Tourette’s Syndrome and the interesting sounding Dysmaturational Syndrome, which probably accounts for many of those autism “recovery” stories that are used to support some pretty odd therapies.

Several readers of this blog have noticed that exposure to Group A Streptococcus causes their child’s autism to worsen.  Quotes range from facial grimacing, to raving like a lunatic.

Much has been written about the conditions PANDAS and PANS.  The proposed mechanism behind PANDAS/PANS is highly disputed, with some strong evidence showing it not to be valid.

What is clear is that in some people, following a strep infection, they change overnight from completely normal to something quite different.  This is the PANDAS/PANS phenomenon.

In people with autism, it is possible that a different mechanism is in play, rather similar to the allergy induced behavioral change that has been discussed in depth in this blog and that is triggered by mast cell degranulation.

Parents naturally assume that if their child has autism and strep infections make it worse, that they must have PANDAS/PANS.  Maybe they do, but there is another completely different explanation.

TICS, OCD and Stereotypy

There are only a limited number of behavioral responses a human can make, whereas there seem to be an endless list of possible biological or genetic dysfunctions.  The end result is that entirely different dysfunctions can lead to apparently similar behaviours and a lot of confusion and misdiagnoses.

In autism, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and Tourette’s Syndrome common features are repetitive behaviors, physical tics and stereotypy. These three disorders are diagnosed solely based on observation, rather than any biological testing.

The underlying biological causes for these behaviors are not understood and there are likely many different causes, some overlapping, between the three observational diagnoses.

We can also work backwards from a therapeutic perspective and see what therapies work in each condition.  One well documented compulsive behavior is trichotillomania, which is when people compulsively pull out their own hair.

Many people with this type of OCD find near complete relief from the same therapy that benefits people with autism and stereotypy.  Both groups respond to the antioxidant NAC and their compulsive behaviors abate.

I recently noted that some people with trichotillomania find Inositol also makes these compulsive behaviors abate.  A very small trial showed that Inositol did not help autism.

I think it is fair to say that there is some overlap between what is causing stereotypy and what is causing some OCD.

When it comes to tics, there seems to be an endless list of causes.  Numerous conditions are known to cause foot flapping and restless leg syndrome.

Breath holding is a common problem in Rett Syndrome, it occurs in classic autism, but it is also seen as a tic disorder.

Most people with OCD, Tourette’s and tic disorders do not have autism.  However, some very young children with Tourette’s and apparent autism, actually may have something termed “Dysmaturational Syndrome”.

Dysmaturational syndrome was identified and documented by Michele Zappella, an Italian doctor interested in autism and Tourette’s syndrome.

He identified a sizable subgroup of autism in very young children that was comorbid with the Tourette’s Syndrome tic disorder.  The unusual thing is that by the age of six, these children had “grown out” of their autism entirely.

Zappella’s study in 2010 suggests that his Dysmaturational syndrome applies to about 6% of early childhood autism.  In effect, he is saying that 6% of the children diagnosed before 5 years old with autism, fit this Dysmaturational syndrome and “recover” to have normal IQ, no seizures, and no signs of autism.  The tics though do not go away.

Early-onset Tourette syndrome with reversible autistic behaviour: A dysmaturational syndrome. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

Early-onset Tourette syndrome comorbid with reversible autistic behaviour is described in twelve young males. After a normal gestation, delivery and first-year development, regression set in between the age of one and two with loss of various abilities and the emergence of autistic behaviour. At this time, or slightly later, they showed multiple motor and vocal tics, simple and complex: the latter could also be traced to most of their parents. Following an intervention based on intense cuddling, motor activation and paedagogic guidance, these children's abilities rapidly improved, reaching at follow-up a normal or borderline intellectual functioning and with the disappearance of their initial autistic behaviour. At follow-up tics were present in all, usually with the features of a full-blown Tourette syndrome, often comorbid with ADHD, and in some cases with OCD.

Autistic regression with and without EEG abnormalities followed by favourable outcome.



To explore the relationship between autistic regression (AR) with and without EEG abnormalities and favourable outcome.


Follow up data on children with favourable outcome in a series of 534 cases aged below 5 years and diagnosed as ASD.


Cases with regression were 167 (31.8%), usually with persistent ASD, intellectual disabilities and EEG abnormalities. Thirty nine children (7.3%) went off autism and recovered entirely their intellectual and social abilities. Few of them included examples of pharmacologically treated Landau and Kleffner syndrome and other similar complex cases with abnormal EEG. The majority was represented by 36 (6.7%) children, mostly males, with a dysmaturational syndrome: their development was initially normal up to 18 months when an autistic regression occurred accompanied by the appearance of motor and vocal tics. Relational therapies were followed by rapid improvement. By 6 years all children had lost features of ASD and their I.Q. was in most cases between 90 and 110. Convulsions were absent and EEG was normal in all cases except one. In a few of them recovery was spontaneous. Seventeen children were followed after 5 years 6 months: 12 (70%) had ADHD, 10 (56%) persistent tics. Tics were often present in parents and relatives, ASD absent, suggesting a genetic background different from cases with persistent ASD. With one exception all "off autism" children had a previous autistic regression.

Back to Group A Strep

For those of you not familiar with PANDAS/PANS.  The term ‘PANDAS’ is short for ‘Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorder Associated with Streptococcus’.  A child can be diagnosed with PANDAS when Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) or tic symptoms suddenly appear for the first time, or the symptoms suddenly get much worse, and the symptoms occur during or after a strep infection in the child.

Faced with a pediatric patient demonstrating the abrupt onset or exacerbation of psychiatric and physical symptoms, clinicians should consider PANS in their differential diagnosis.

Even though Dr Swedo, the leading researcher in the field, says that PANDAS/PANS is not autism, many parents of children with autism think they do have PANDAS/PANS.  This is likely because they have noticed that a strep infection makes their kind of autism worse.

All I can say is that there are very good reasons why strep infections can make autism worse and this has nothing to do with the autoantibodies that are the disputed cause of PANDAS/PANS.

Response to Group A Strep

Your immune system has two levels of defense:-

·        The innate immune system

·        The adaptive immune system

When you have a strep infection both systems respond.  Both of these responses could cause problems for people with autism.  The response from the innate immune system should continue only as long as the bacteria is present, while the response from the adaptive immune system may in some cases continue long after the bacteria is gone.

Innate Immune Response

It is well known that GAS is followed by a robust inflammatory response.

As you can see from the figure below, the inflammatory response results in a wave of pro-inflammatory cytokines including the “arch enemy” of autism, IL-6.

This surge in IL-6 will likely cause a sub-set of those with autism and an over activated immune system (activated microglia and so the “immunostat” is set to high) to go crazy.  This is the same IL-6 surge triggered by mast cell degranulation and the Il-6 surge used to signal milk teeth roots to dissolve.

Infections caused by group A Streptococcus (GAS) are characterized by robust inflammatory responses and can rapidly lead to life-threatening disease manifestations. However, host mechanisms that respond to GAS, which may influence disease pathology, are understudied.

Figure 1. Cellular receptors and signalling pathways involved in GAS recognition and inflammatory mediator release.

Inflammatory mediators are released from multiple leukocyte types during GAS infection; including PMNs, monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells . GAS and GAS-derived LTA, SLO, and soluble M1 protein (sM1), activate cellular responses to infection . Receptors involved in recognition of GAS include TLRs, TREM-1, complement receptors (CR), immunoglobulin receptors (FcR), Mac-1, and NLRP3 . Ligand binding to these receptors leads to downstream signalling via MyD88, HIF-1α, STING, IFR3, IRF5, and TBK1 . Recognition of GAS triggers release of interleukins, TNF-α, IFN-β, HBP, resistin, and LL-37 .

The Adaptive Immune Response:

Streptococcal Infection Causing Rheumatic Fever

Acute rheumatic fever (ARF) may occur following an infection of the throat by the bacteria Streptococcus pyogenes. If it is untreated ARF occurs in up to three percent of people.

Acute rheumatic fever (ARF) is not caused by the strep bacteria, but to aberrant immunological reactions to Group A streptococcal antigens.  The underlying mechanism is believed to involve the production of antibodies against a person's own tissues.

ARF, is an inflammatory disease that can involve the heart, joints, skin, and brain. The disease typically develops two to four weeks after a throat infection. Signs and symptoms include fever, multiple painful joints, and involuntary muscle movements.
It would appear that in some children, following a strep infection, they develop tics.  These involuntary muscle movements are a symptom of acute rheumatic fever (ARF).  So rather than calling it by a new name PANDAS, perhaps better just to use the old name?

Strep infections PANDAS, OCD and Tourette’s

There is quite a lot of research on this subject, but much is contradictory. The idea put forward by researchers like Swedo is that elevated streptococcal antibodies causes PANDAS, but other researchers appear to have disproved this.

So you can make what you will of the research.

What is undisputed is that a strep throat can lead to acute rheumatic fever, which can affect the brain and cause involuntary muscle movements (tics) amongst other things.

Streptococcal infections can induce obsessive-compulsive and tic disorders. In children, this syndrome, frequently associated with disturbances in attention, learning and mood, has been designated pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infection (PANDAS). Autoantibodies recognizing central nervous system (CNS) epitopes are found in sera of most PANDAS subjects, but may not be unique to this neuropsychiatric subset. In support of a humoral immune mechanism, clinical improvement often follows plasmapheresis or intravenous immunoglobulin. We recently described a PANDAS mouse model wherein repetitive behaviors correlate with peripheral anti-CNS antibodies and immune deposits in brain following streptococcal immunization. These antibodies are directed against group A β-hemolytic streptococcus matrix (M) protein and cross-react with molecular targets complement C4 protein and α-2-macroglobulin in brain. Here we show additional deficits in motor coordination, learning/memory and social interaction in PANDAS mice, replicating more complex aspects of human disease. Furthermore, we demonstrate for the first time that humoral immunity is necessary and sufficient to induce the syndrome through experiments wherein naive mice are transfused with immunoglobulin G (IgG) from PANDAS mice. Depletion of IgG from donor sera abrogates behavior changes. These functional disturbances link to the autoimmunity-related IgG1 subclass but are not attributable to differences in cytokine profiles. The mode of disrupting blood–brain barrier integrity differentially affects the ultimate CNS distribution of these antibodies and is shown to be an additional important determinant of neuropsychiatric outcomes. This work provides insights into PANDAS pathogenesis and may lead to new strategies for identification and treatment of children at risk for autoimmune brain disorders.


Background: An autoimmune-mediated mechanism has been proposed for both pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorder associated with streptococcal infection (PANDAS) and Tourette syndrome (TS). Confirmatory evidence has, in part, been based on controversial findings of autoantibodies in the sera of children with these disorders.

Objective: To compare antineuronal antibody profiles in subjects with TS and PANDAS to age-matched controls.

Methods: Sera were obtained from 48 children with PANDAS, 46 with TS, and 43 age-matched controls. Serum autoantibodies were measured by use of ELISA and Western immunoblotting against a variety of epitopes, including human postmortem caudate, putamen, and prefrontal cortex (Brodmann area 10). Immunoreactivity was also measured against commercially available α- and γ-enolase, aldolase C, and pyruvate kinase M1. Several assays were repeated after preabsorption of sera with M6 strain streptococci.

Results: Median ELISA optical density readings were similar among the groups. Western blot analyses showed complex staining patterns with no differences in any tissue region based on the number of bands, reactivity peaks at molecular weights 98, 60, 45, and 40 kDa, or total area under ScanPack (Biometra, Gottingen, Germany)–derived peaks. Immunoreactivity against four putative pathologic antigens did not differentiate the clinical groups. Repeat immunoblotting after serum preabsorption with streptococci showed no loss of reactivity. ELISA values exceeding a specified cutoff did not predict changes in binding to either brain epitopes or commercial antigens.

Conclusions: Results do not support the hypothesis that PANDAS and Tourette syndrome are secondary to antineuronal antibodies. Longitudinal studies are required to determine whether autoantibodies correlate with fluctuations in clinical activity

CONCLUSIONS. The failure of immune markers to correlate with clinical exacerbations in children with pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections raises serious concerns about the viability of autoimmunity as a pathophysiological mechanism in this disorder.

Conclusions: The present study does not support a strong relationship between streptococcal infections and neuropsychiatric syndromes such as obsessive-compulsive disorder and Tourette syndrome. However, it is possible that a weak association (or a stronger association in a small susceptible subpopulation) was not detected due to nondifferential misclassification of exposure and limited statistical power. The data are consistent with previous reports of greater rates of diagnosis of Tourette syndrome or tics in white populations.

Our results demonstrate the potential pathogenic role of autoantibodies produced following exposure to GAS in the induction of behavioral and motor alterations, and support a causal role for autoantibodies in GAS-related neuropsychiatric disorders.

Background: Studies have noted immunological disruptions in patients with tic disorders, including increased serum cytokine levels. This study aimed to determine whether or not cytokine levels could be correlated with tic symptom severity in patients with a diagnosed tic disorder.
Methods: Twenty-one patients, ages 4–17 years (average 10.63±2.34 years, 13 males), with a clinical diagnosis of Tourette's syndrome (TS) or chronic tic disorder (CTD), were selected based on having clinic visits that coincided with a tic symptom exacerbation and a remission. Ratings of tic severity were assessed using the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS) and serum cytokine levels (interleukin [IL]-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13, interferon [IFN]-γ, tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α, and granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor [GM-CSF]) were measured using Luminex xMAP technology.
Results: During tic symptom exacerbation, patients had higher median serum TNF-α levels (z=−1.962, p=0.05), particularly those on antipsychotics (U=9.00, p=0.033). Increased IL-13 was also associated with antipsychotic use during exacerbation (U=4.00, p=0.043) despite being negatively correlated to tic severity scores (ρ=−0.599, p=018), whereas increased IL-5 was associated with antibiotic use (U=6.5, p=0.035). During tic symptom remission, increased serum IL-4 levels were associated with antipsychotic (U=6.00, p=0.047) and antibiotic (U=1.00, p=0.016) use, whereas increased IL-12p70 (U=4.00, p=0.037) was associated with antibiotic use.
Conclusions: These findings suggest a role for cytokine dysregulation in the pathogenesis of tic disorders. It also points toward the mechanistic involvement and potential diagnostic utility of cytokine monitoring, particularly TNF-α levels. Larger, systematic studies are necessary to further delineate the role of cytokines and medication influences on immunological profiling in tic disorders.

Objective: Pediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome (PANS) is a subtype of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) marked by an abrupt onset or exacerbation of neuropsychiatric symptoms. We aim to characterize the phenotypic presentation of youth with PANS.
Methods: Forty-three youth (ages 4–14 years) meeting criteria for PANS were assessed using self-report and clinician-administered measures, medical record reviews, comprehensive clinical evaluation, and laboratory measures.
Results: Youth with PANS presented with an early age of OCD onset (mean=7.84 years) and exhibited moderate to severe obsessive compulsive symptoms upon evaluation. All had comorbid anxiety and emotional lability, and scored well below normative means on all quality of life subscales. Youth with elevated streptococcal antibody titers trended toward having higher OCD severity, and presented more frequently with dilated pupils relative to youth without elevated titers. A cluster analysis of core PANS symptoms revealed three distinct symptom clusters that included core characteristic PANS symptoms, streptococcal-related symptoms, and cytokine-driven/physiological symptoms. Youth with PANS who had comorbid tics were more likely to exhibit a decline in school performance, visuomotor impairment, food restriction symptoms, and handwriting deterioration, and they reported lower quality of life relative to youth without tics.
Conclusions: The sudden, acute onset of neuropsychiatric symptoms, high frequency of comorbidities (i.e., anxiety, behavioral regression, depression, and suicidality), and poor quality of life capture the PANS subgroup as suddenly and severely impaired youth. Identifying clinical characteristics of youth with PANS will allow clinicians to diagnose and treat this subtype of OCD with a more strategized and effective approach.


If exposure to strep causes your child to “go crazy” I think this is a case of IL-6 triggering an autism flare-up.  Once the strep is treated, IL-6 levels will fall and the crazy behavior and raging will subside.  This should be a short term problem.  This is unrelated to PANDAS/PANS.  IL-6 autism flare-ups caused by an inflammatory response, as opposed to an allergic response, do respond remarkably well to a small dose of ibuprofen. Ibuprofen can even be used to prevent this type of flare-up.  If the IL-6 surge was triggered by mast cell degranulation, ibuprofen will not help.

If exposure to strep causes facial grimacing and other tics then the short term increase in IL-6 and TNF-α is exacerbating a, likely already existing, tic disorder.  If the tics do not go away after the strep has been treated, then it may be that strep autoantibodies are indeed the problem and you may have a variant of rheumatic fever, in which case you could look at the suggested PANDAS/PANS therapies.

Tuesday 24 November 2015

A Possible Therapy for Rett-like Autism Variants, as well as MCI and even Schizophrenia?

Today’s post was triggered by an intriguing comment left on this blog.

As we have seen in previous posts, the single gene causes of “autism” like fragile X and Rett syndrome are themselves on a spectrum, with some people worse affected than others.  Boys almost always being more severely affected than girls.

It also appears possible that a partial dysfunction of this same gene/protein may lead to a much milder version of these same syndromes.

Rett syndrome is well studied and as we saw in the earlier post about growth factors in autism, one key feature is an almost complete lack of Nerve Growth Factor (NGF).  Reduced levels of NGF are associated with several diseases and also the aging process.  In many cases of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), as seen in dementia in older people, reduced NGF can be the root problem.

Rett Syndrome

Rett syndrome usually gets grouped as part of autism.

Almost all people with Rett syndrome are female; here is why.  

Rett syndrome is caused by mutations in the gene MECP2 located on the X chromosome. Because the disease-causing gene is located on the X chromosome, a female born with an MECP2 mutation on her X chromosome has another X chromosome with an ostensibly normal copy of the same gene, while a male with the mutation on his X chromosome has no other X chromosome, only a Y chromosome; thus, he has no normal gene. Without a normal gene to provide normal proteins, the male fetus is unable to slow the development of the disease, hence the failure of male fetuses with a MECP2 mutation to survive.

MECP2 is known to play a wider role in some autism, epilepsy and MR/ID

We saw that the Italian Nobel Laureate, Rita Levi-Montalcini, who discovered Nerve Growth factor (NGF), maintained her mental sharpness into her 90s by taking her homemade NGF eye drops in her old age.

Human Growth Factors, Autism and the Centenarian Nobel Laureate

The problem with NGF is that it does not cross the blood brain barrier (BBB), so there are no NGF tablets.  Rita’s solution was eye drops; I expect the nasal route might also be possible.

Dompe Farmaceutici are developing NGF eye drops as an orphan drug to treat Retinitis pigmentosa

Bypassing the BBB is of great interest to medical science as we have seen in earlier posts.

Stimulating NGF with Hericium Erinaceus (Lion’s Mane Mushroom)

There is a surprising amount of literature about the use of a mushroom called Hericium Erinaceus, or Lion’s Mane, to treat various neurological conditions.  The made mode of action is stimulating production of NGF.

It was Lion’s Mane that the reader of this blog is giving to his daughter.  This is not typical autism, but in this era of diagnosing almost any childhood developmental dysfunction as autism, I expect autism is label many would apply to it.  

“Our 14 year old daughters previous diagnoses of PDD has recently been dropped, re-evaluated, and named Mild Cognitive Disability with Anxiety and Dementia. This turned out to be a great turn of phrase for us because we began to see and approach her condition differently. To begin with we started look at the similarities between her poor working memory and irritability as more similar to the dementia you would see in early stages of Alzheimer’s than something that could be treated with ABA as we had previously tried

Is this a mild version of Rett Syndrome, like the Zappella variant is?

Anyway, it responds to a therapy that increases NGF, a key deficit in Rett Syndrome.

Studies supporting the use of Hericium Erinaceus / Lion’s Mane/ Yamabushitake and also Amyloban 3399

Lion’s mane is also called Yamabushitake and a rather expensive concentrated product derived from it is called Amyloban 3399.

As always, the problem with supplements is quality control, lack of standardization and even contamination.

There would seem to be the potential to make an effective drug based on Lion’s Mane.

It would also seem logical to trial  Dompe Farmaceuticis NGF eye drops in children with Rett Syndrome and in older people with early dementia, not to mention adults with schizophrenia (see study on  Amyloban 3399 below).

Improving effects of the mushroom Yamabushitake (Hericium erinaceus) on mild cognitive impairment: a double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial.




A double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled trial was performed on 50- to 80-year-old Japanese men and women diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment in order to examine the efficacy of oral administration of Yamabushitake (Hericium erinaceus), an edible mushroom, for improving cognitive impairment, using a cognitive function scale based on the Revised Hasegawa Dementia Scale (HDS-R). After 2 weeks of preliminary examination, 30 subjects were randomized into two 15-person groups, one of which was given Yamabushitake and the other given a placebo. The subjects of the Yamabushitake group took four 250 mg tablets containing 96% of Yamabushitake dry powder three times a day for 16 weeks. After termination of the intake, the subjects were observed for the next 4 weeks. At weeks 8, 12 and 16 of the trial, the Yamabushitake group showed significantly increased scores on the cognitive function scale compared with the placebo group. The Yamabushitake group's scores increased with the duration of intake, but at week 4 after the termination of the 16 weeks intake, the scores decreased significantly. Laboratory tests showed no adverse effect of Yamabushitake. The results obtained in this study suggest that Yamabushitake is effective in improving mild cognitive impairment.

Our group has been conducting a search for compounds for dementia derived from medicinal mushrooms since 1991. A series of benzyl alcohol derivatives (named hericenones C to H), as well as a series of diterpenoid derivatives (named erinacines A to I) were isolated from the mushroom Hericium erinaceum. These compounds significantly induced the synthesis of nerve growth factor (NGF) in vitro and in vivo. In a recent study, dilinoleoyl-phosphatidylethanolamine (DLPE) was isolated from the mushroom and was found to protect against neuronal cell death caused by b-amyloid peptide (Ab) toxicity, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and oxidative stress. Furthermore, the results of preliminary clinical trials showed that the mushroom was effective in patients with dementia in improving the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) score or retarding disease progression.

Reduction of depression andanxiety by 4 weeks Hericium erinaceus intake.



Hericium erinaceus, a well known edible mushroom, has numerous biological activities. Especially hericenones and erinacines isolated from its fruiting body stimulate nerve growth factor (NGF) synthesis, which expects H. erinaceus to have some effects on brain functions and autonomic nervous system. Herein, we investigated the clinical effects of H. erinaceus on menopause, depression, sleep quality and indefinite complaints, using the Kupperman Menopausal Index (KMI), the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and the Indefinite Complaints Index (ICI). Thirty females were randomly assigned to either the H. erinaceus (HE) group or the placebo group and took HE cookies or placebo cookies for 4 weeks. Each of the CES-D and the ICI score after the HE intake was significantly lower than that before. In two terms of the ICI, "insentive" and "palpitatio", each of the mean score of the HE group was significantly lower than the placebo group. "Concentration", "irritating" and "anxious" tended to be lower than the placebo group. Our results show that HE intake has the possibility to reduce depression and anxiety and these results suggest a different mechanism from NGF-enhancing action of H. erinaceus.

Peripheral Nerve Regeneration Following Crush Injury to RatPeroneal Nerve by Aqueous Extract of Medicinal Mushroom Hericium erinaceus (Bull.:Fr) Pers. (Aphyllophoromycetidea

We treated 10 patients with schizophrenia in this study, randomly selected by each doctor, working at six different institutions. Patients ranged across age, duration of illness, sex, or psychotropic drugs used.
All patients were refractory to currently available antipsychotic agents, but improved without exception and with no adverse reactions.
Average scores on the positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) improved significantly for all items, including positive, negative, and general psychopathology.

Amyloban3399---contains Amycenon, a standardized extract of HE containing hericenones and amyloban – and is currently being tested for safety as a health food supplement (Mori, Inatomi, Ouchi et al., 2009). A clinical trial with 8 volunteers was conducted to demonstrate the cognition-enhancing properties of Amyloban3399 (Lotter, 2012). Results of the study showed that Amyloban3399 improved mood, memory and sense of wellbeing. Overall Amyloban3399 was generally well tolerated.

Schizophrenia is the most devastating disease of the major psychoses. It has been repeatedly observed in clinical practice that although positive symptoms may be reduced within a few week treatment period, while it takes months or years to see improvements in cognitive symptoms. Atypical neuroleptic clozapine is associated with reduced liability for extrapyramidal symptoms and is effective in treatment-resistant schizophrenia. However, adverse effects limit the widespread use of clozapine.

Amyloban3399 was originally thought to be a drug for dementia.

However, based on my clinical observation, I asked a schizophrenia patient presented in this report to take Amyloban3399. He had been treatment-resistant and suffered from severe side effects for more than 30 years. He agreed to take Amyloban3399 and he has experienced dramatic life improvements and has been doing quite well for these three years.


Most autism variants appear to have high NGF, so the therapies discussed here relate to Rett Syndrome and other low NGF variants of autism, not to mention dementia.

Signs of Rett syndrome that are not similar to autism:

  • affects almost exclusively girls

Signs of Rett syndrome that are similar to autism:

·         incontinence
·         screaming fits
·         inconsolable crying
·         breath holding, hyperventilation & air swallowing
·         avoidance of eye contact
·         lack of social/emotional reciprocity
·         markedly impaired use of nonverbal behaviors to regulate social interaction
·         loss of speech
·         sensory problems
Signs of Rett syndrome that are also present in cerebral palsy (regression of the type seen in Rett syndrome would be unusual in cerebral palsy; this confusion could rarely be made):

·         possible short stature, sometimes with unusual body proportions because of difficulty walking or malnutrition caused by difficulty swallowing
·         hypotonia
·         delayed or absent ability to walk
·         gait/movement difficulties
·         ataxia
·         microcephaly in some - abnormally small head, poor head growth
·         gastrointestinal problems
·         some forms of spasticity
·         chorea - spasmodic movements of hand or facial muscles
·         dystonia
·         bruxism – grinding of teeth

In people with low NGF, therapies known to increase it, look well worth investigating.