Showing posts with label Meldonium. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Meldonium. Show all posts

Tuesday 8 March 2016

Meldonium/Mildronate for Athletic Performance, but seemingly also for Mitochondria, Neuroinflammation, Cognition and Alzheimer’s

What you see is what you get,
not what you see is what he took.

Today’s post is another very short one.

You may have seen that Maria Sharapova, the tennis player has got into trouble for taking a Latvian drug called Meldonium/Mildronate for the last decade.

Like many people, I did a quick check on this drug to see what it does and if you could innocently not know that it is performance enhancing.  Well it does lots of performance enhancing things like increasing blood flow and increasing your capacity to exercise.

What drew my attention was its effect on mitochondria, cognition and even as a potential Alzheimer’s Therapy.

I should point out that Bumetanide, the most effective Autism therapy my son uses, is also a banned substance under the World Doping Agency rules.  Bumetanide and other diuretics are used as masking agents by athletes taking performance enhancing drugs.  


Mildronate is a Latvian drug, widely prescribed across the former Soviet Union.

For people with autism who respond to carnitine therapy, or with a diagnosed mitochondrial disorder it looks very interesting.  There really are no approved treatments that reverse such disorders, just to stop them getting worse.

Mildronate also shows some promise for both Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s disease in animal models.

Mildronate improves cognition and reduces amyloid-β pathology in transgenic Alzheimer's disease mice


Mildronate, a carnitine congener drug, previously has been shown to provide neuroprotection in an azidothymidine-induced mouse model of neurotoxicity and in a Parkinson's disease rat model. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of mildronate treatment on cognition and pathology in Alzheimer's disease (AD) model mice (APP(SweDI)). Mildronate was administered i.p. daily at 50 or 100 mg/kg for 28 days. At the end of treatment, the animals were behaviorally and cognitively tested, and brains were assessed for AD-related pathology, inflammation, synaptic markers, and acetylcholinesterase (AChE). The data show that mildronate treatment significantly improved animal performance in water maze and social recognition tests, lowered amyloid-β deposition in the hippocampus, increased expression of the microglia marker Iba-1, and decreased AChE staining, although it did not alter expression of proteins involved in synaptic plasticity (GAP-43, synaptophysin, and GAD67). Taken together, these findings indicate mildronate's ability to improve cognition and reduce amyloid-β pathology in a mouse model of AD and its possible therapeutic utility as a disease-modifying drug in AD patients.

This review for the first time summarizes the data obtained in the neuropharmacological studies of mildronate, a drug previously known as a cardioprotective agent. In different animal models of neurotoxicity and neurodegenerative diseases, we demonstrated its neuroprotecting activity. By the use of immunohistochemical methods and Western blot analysis, as well as some selected behavioral tests, the new mechanisms of mildronate have been demonstrated: a regulatory effect on mitochondrial processes and on the expression of nerve cell proteins, which are involved in cell survival, functioning, and inflammation processes. Particular attention is paid to the capability of mildronate to stimulate learning and memory and to the expression of neuronal proteins involved in synaptic plasticity and adult neurogenesis. These properties can be useful in neurological practice to protect and treat neurological disorders, particularly those associated with neurodegeneration and a decline in cognitive functions.

The obtained data give a new insight into the influence of mildronate on the central nervous system. This drug shows beneficial effects in the regulation of cell processes necessary for cell integrity and survival, particularly by targeting mitochondria and by stabilizing the expression of proteins involved in neuroinflammation and neuroregeneration. These properties can be useful in neurological practice to protect and treat neurological disorders, such as Parkinson’s disease, diabetic neuropathies, and ischemic stroke. Moreover, because mildronate improves learning and memory, one may suggest mildronate as a multitargeted neuroprotective/ neurorestorative drug with its therapeutic utility as a memory enhancer in cognitive impairment conditions, such as neurodegenerative diseases, schizophrenia, and other pathologies associated with a decline in awareness.

Mildronate, a representative of the aza-butyrobetaine class of drugs with proven cardioprotective efficacy, was recently found to prevent dysfunction of complex I in rat liver mitochondria. The present study demonstrates that mildronate also acts as a neuroprotective agent. In a mouse model of azidothymidine (anti-HIV drug) neurotoxicity, mildronate reduced the azidothymidine-induced alterations in mouse brain tissue: it normalized the increase in caspase-3, cellular apoptosis susceptibility protein (CAS) and iNOS expression assessed by quantitative and semi-quantitative analysis. Mildronate also normalized the changes in cytochrome c oxidase (COX) expression, reduced the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and cellular infiltration. The present results show that the neuroprotective action of mildronate results at least partially from anti-neurodegenerative (anti-apoptotic) and anti-inflammatory mechanisms. It might be suggested that the molecular conformation of mildronate can facilitate its easy binding to mitochondria, and regulate the expression of different signal molecules, hence maintaining cellular signaling and survival.


If any of the Russian readers of this blog have trialed Mildronate in their child with autism secondary to mitochondrial disease (AMD), please let us know the result.

Perhaps Dr Kelley should try mildronate, it clearly falls into his area of interest.